Any serious analysis, examination or string of logical reasoning, necessarily requires the establishing of grounds. These include the underlying theoretical principles and assumptions that preclude any derivable inference. Consequently, the degree of validity attributable to these inferences and deductions correspond directly to the soundness of these grounds. In philosophy however, as opposed to axiomatic mathematics, absolute truths remain impossible when establishing these base principles. Therefore, what is important is to simply make an effort in establishing these grounds, or at the very least, surveying them to the effect of gaining awareness of their limits.

In delineating the conditons and limits of human thought, nothing says it better than E.K. in C-P-R:

Reason has this peculiar fate that, with reference to one species of its knowledge, it is always troubled by questions which, as prescribed by the very nature of reason itself, it is not able to ignore, but which, as transcending all its powers, it is also not able to answer.

The perplexity into which it thus falls is thorugh no fault of its own. It begins with principles which, in the course of experience, it necessarily follows, and which are sufficiently confirmed by experience. With their aid, according to the necessities of reasons very nature, it rises higher and higher to more remote conditions. But when it perceives that in this way its work remains forever incomplete, because the questions never cease, it finds itself constrained to take refuge in principles, which overstep all possible expereince, and nevertheless seem so unobjectionable that even ordinary common sense agrees with them. But by this procedure human reason precipitates itsself into darkness and contradiction; and while it may indeed conjecture that these must be in some way due to concealed errors, it is not in a position to be able to detect them. For since the principles of which it is making use transcend the limits of possible experience, they are non longer subject to any empirical test.


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